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The square of the standard deviation is regarded as equal to the variance. It’s a measure of the data dispersion about the mean value or position. Or simply it measures how many numbers could possibly deviate in the data from the mean.

To define variance properly, we would say the average of the squares of the deviations between the observed and the predicted value is the variance. The variance of a data collection is a mathematical measure of the data’s dispersion from the mean. 

However, despite the fact that this value is technically valid, it is difficult to implement in real life practices due to the squared values utilized to calculate it. It is useful (and in some cases necessary) to calculate the spread of a distribution while describing data. 

The data used to describe a whole population reflects all of the population’s components. We want to know a measure of the possible differences between the data and the population mean when calculating the population distribution. Deviations is the name given for such intervals.

The average square of these deviations is calculated by the variance of a data sample. The variance is defined as the addition of different outcomes multiplied by the squared deviations from the random variable’s average. The variance is a very useful method when determining the risk involved with a range of choices.

Significance of Variance

Variance being a concept of statistics and probability has broad range implications in various fields of daily life. And due to its immense usage it is highly significant and important in most of the financial, industrial and economic sectors. For instance, management may use variance analysis to better grasp current costs and therefore control potential costs. 

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The variance should always be determined by subtracting the actual/forecast value from the expected or budgeted sum. As a result, a positive number is favored and a negative number is unflavored. Moreover, the method of variance reduction improves accuracy and decreases the number of errors, so monitoring variance is critical in the production and quality industries.

Variance Calculation

The process of finding or calculating the variance is simple yet it requires standard deviation during the calculations. To find the variance, first we have to look for the mean of all the values. After calculating the mean, the second step is to take the average squared deviation of each number in the sample mean.


The analysis of the relationship among two variables is known as covariance. In other words, we would say, covariance evaluates and comprehends the linear relationship between two variables. Generalizing the concept of variance to measure the deviation of variables from the mean value covariance assess the multiple variables relation.

Thus the covariance calculates the variations between two variables respective to each other in spite of calculating the dispersion of a variable from mean as in variance. Putting it all together covariance assesses how much – and how far – the variables change in tandem. It’s a measure of the variance between two variables. The covariance, on the other hand, does not consider the interdependence of factors.

Moreover, in contrast to variance being a non-negative measurement the covariance could be zero as well as negative. Also, the covariance is measured in units unlike the variance.  By multiplying the units of two variables the resultant units are determined.

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But how did the relationship among two random variables come out to be zero? It is when two random variables are independent or the two variables don’t vary together, their Covariance is zero. It makes sense because they don’t impact each other and hence don’t fluctuate together although this relationship doesn’t always hold in the other direction. 

However, when the two variables vary (increase or decrease) together in such a case the covariance value is taken as positive. And in contrast, when both the variables vary conversely, where one decreases and other increases then the covariance is negative.

Covariance Calculator helps online covariance calculators with probability to find accurate results as per the values of the data sets. In a mathematical operation, sometimes there can be remaining values you want to know about. You can use the Remainder Calculator to learn more about the calculations of those remaining values.

Shabbir Ahmad

Shabbir Ahmad is a freelance enthusiastic blogger & SEO expert. He is the founder of Shifted Magazine & Shifted News. He contributes to many authority blogs including porch, hackernoon & techcrunch.